Chronology

PERIODS DATES SITES

Contemporary

Period

1956 - today Independence and establishment of the Republic of Sudan
Colonial Period 1896-1953 Anglo-Egyptian treaty establishing condominium over the Sudan
Islamic Period 1317-1885

Forced conversion of the Kingdom of Dongola to Islam

Incorporation into the Ottoman Empire

Mediaeval Period 640-1323 Christian kingdom of Makuria

Post-Meroitic

Period

400-600 Several regional powers
Meroitic Period

400 B.C.-

400 A.D.

Political centre moved to Meroe

Continuation of constructions at Tabo and Dukki Gel

Occupation of the western cemetery

Napatan

Period

730-400

Kings from Napata

Restorations and constructions at Dukki Gel and Tabo

Expansion of the western cemetery at Kerma

Nubian Pharaohs 713-656 Twenty-fifth Dynasty rules over a territory encompassing Egypt and Sudan
Dark Ages 1080-730 Withdrawal of Egyptian authority. Period poorly documented

Egyptian

Occupation

1480-1080

Conquest of Nubia by Egyptian pharaohs of the New Kingdom

Destruction of the city of Kerma and foundation of Dukki Gel.

Classic Kerma 1750-1480

Expansion of the city and the defence system. Temples (deffufa) and royal tombs.

Middle Kerma 2050-1750 Erection of fortified walls. Palaces and princely tombs.
Early Kerma 2450-2050

Foundation of the city

Development of the religious quarter and the eastern necropolis

Pre-Kerma 3200-2500

Several settlements, including a proto-urban agglomeration on the site of the eastern necropolis

Neolithic   4700-4300 First villages of stock breeders on the site of the eastern necropolis
5000-4000 Cemeteries at Kadruka
6000-5500 Cemeteries at el-Barga
7200-6500 Settlements and tombs at Wadi el-Arab
Epipalaeolithic  7500-7000 Settlements and cemeteries at el-Barga
8300-7800 Settlements at Busharia
Middle Palaeolithic 200,000-35,000 Evidence of occupation and knapping workshops at the summit of volcanoes
Acheulian 500,000-200,000 Evidence of occupation
Lower Palaeolithic 1,000,000-500,000 Camp remains at Kaddanarti and Kabrinarti